Wednesday, May 27, 2020
The Unusual Secret of College Essay on Mulan The 30-Second Trick for College Essay on Mulan Yes, there's a person who can assist you with your essays expert essay writers at MyPerfectWords. Reading example essays works exactly the same way! They may be lightly modified for readability or to protect the anonymity of contributors, but we do not edit essay examples prior to publication. Browsing our essay writing samples can provide you a good idea whether the standard of our essays is the quality you're looking for. What to Expect From College Essay on Mulan? Aside from the vision, the movie provides you with an excellent hearing impact. It was the start of our universe and it would have been amazing to observe that. Modern Nazism has to go, therefore it's only logical to presume that its oldest tribute reel should have the boot too. The second meal that plays a big role in the movie is the one which happens in the barracks. It's also crucial to mention that it's the social- economic-legal cost that deters us from taking those decisions, which aren't acceptable for society. That is the principal reason they get the respect, recognition and support for their future wonderful deals. The purposes can fluctuate based on the kind of quote you're using or the effect you wish to accomplish. The two of these examples illustrate a spiritual connection to nature, an important facet of Daoism. However, it's also interesting to contemplate the opposite perspective. The cost of an essay rides on the total amount of effort the writer has to exert. Who one sees in the mirror isn't always the person he wished to be. A couple of bucks won't help you wind up getting an excellent paper. College Essay on Mulan Help! All the men failed to finish the undertaking. Disney uses different methods of getting rid of how women aren't all born in feminine way. Women are not permitted in the army. In addition, they were proud that they could practice Kongfu to protect themselves. Everybody in the country has the duty to secure their own land regardless of what gender they are. It really does work if you place in the energy and time. To begin with, the majority of the folks that have a college degree have better jobs. With the rates of youth obesity a significant concern in many nations, some individuals are arguing it is a whole lot more important to continue to keep our youth a ctive, than overworked academically. Lies You've Been Told About College Essay on Mulan We are going to take a look straight away. To me, it's ridiculous that this sort of draft was ever created. We're likely to go a bit deeper. She wins without failing first, and it's only in the end which everyone finds out that she's really a woman, and nobody feels offended about it. So the Disney Company made a decision to earn a film to enter the Chinese industry. Conclusion Disney are showing in all there films that it is essential for a women to find a guy and live happily ever after but of course this isn't correct. And don't forget, too cheap doesn't always mean good! In compliance with Porter's five forces (Porter, 2004), by differentiating and expanding their goods and services through the years, Disney has produced a high barrier for new entrants merely by reaching a huge number of diverse segments in various markets, which automatically reduces the degree of competitiveness on the market. Click on Submit when you're done. Read our customers' reviews and feedbacks. The Pain of College Essay on Mulan Look around and you will probably locate your hero. Mulan realizes that she's not invincible and grasps the perils of war for the very first moment. Mulan must also come to be an outstanding solider for a duty to others. Apart from the mild racism in Mulan, there's also a little sexism mixed in.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The first federal prosecution of cyber harassment in the United State was in June 2004 when 38-year-old James Robert Murphy from Columbia, South Carolina, pleaded guilty to two counts of Use of a Telecommunications Device (the internet) with Intent to Annoy, Abuse, Threaten or Harass. According to investigators, Murphy was sending anonymous and uninvited emails to Seattle resident Joelle Ligon and to her co-workers as early as 1998. Murphy and LigonÃ had dated on and off from 1984-1990. As time went on, the harassment increased and along with dozens of obscene emails each day, Murphy also began sending sexuallyÃ explicit faxes to Ligon and her co-workers. Cant Get Away When Ligon moved to different states and changed jobs, Murphy was able to track her through malware he had placed on her computers and continue his attack. For over four years Ligon tried to ignore the messages by deleting them, but Murphy began making it appear that Ligon was the one sending the sexually explicit materials to her fellow workers. Murphy also had special email programs in order to hide his identity and he created the Anti Joelle Fan Club (AJFC) and repeatedly sent threatening emails from thisÃ alleged group. Ligon decided to start collecting the materials as evidence and went to the police who enlisted the help of the Northwest Cyber Crime Task Force, composed of the FBI, United States Secret Service, Internal Revenue Service, Seattle Police Department, and Washington State Patrol. The NWCCTF investigates Cyber-related violations including criminal computer intrusions, intellectual property theft, child pornography and internet fraud. She also managed to identify Murphy as the person harassing her and she obtained a court order barring contact. When Murphy emailed her, denying that he was harassingÃ her, he violated the court order. Murphy was indicted in April 2004 on 26 counts of sending harassing emails and other violations between May 2002 and April 2003. At first, Murphy pleaded innocent to all charges, but two months later and after a plea agreement was reached, he pleaded guilty to two of the violations. No Remorse From Murphy In court, Murphy told the Judge what he did was stupid, hurtful and just plain wrong. I was going through a bad patch in my life. I want to take my lumps and get on with life. In sentencing Murphy Judge Zilly noted that he was surprised that Murphy made no effort to indicate your remorse to the victim, to indicate you were sorry. The Judge noted that he had received a letter from Joelle Ligon unlike any he had ever received from a crime victim. In it Ligon asked the Judge to impose an effective and compassionate sentence. Judge Zilly decided to impose 500 hours of community service instead of the 160 hours requested by the government. Zilly also sentenced Murphy to five years of probation and more than $12,000 which was to paid to the City of Seattle to compensate the City for 160 hours of work time lost by employees dealing with the harassment. The Crime of Cyberstalking Continues to Grow It used to be that news reports such as Murphys case were an oddity, but with the increase of people managing several aspects of their lives online, both at work and in their personal lives, it has created a vulnerability that attracts criminals including cyberstalkers, webcam blackmailers and identity thieves. According to a poll released by Rad Campaign, Lincoln Park Strategies and Craig Newmark of craigconnects, a quarter of the American population has been bullied, harassed or threatened online and that number almost doubles for those under the age of 35. A third of the victims of online harassment are afraid that the situation may spill over into their real lives resulting in embarrassment and humiliation, loss of jobs, and many are scared for their lives. Reporting Online Harassment and Cyberstalking Many victims of cyberstalking do like Joelle Ligon did when Murphy first harass her, she ignored it, but as the threats grew she sought help. Today, it appears that the response by social networks and law enforcement is improving, with 61 percent of the reported cases resulting in the social networks shutting down the accounts of the offenders and 44 percent of reported cases to law enforcement resulted in an effort to track down the offender. If You Are Threatened Threats should never be ignored - report it. Keeping a record of the date and time of the threat, a screen shot, and hard copies is evidence. It not only can help authorities, social networks, ISPs and website host figure out the identity of the offender, but it also helps prove the level of the harassment which is the deciding factor on if, or if not, a complaint gets investigated.
Saturday, May 9, 2020
<h1> The Hidden Truth About Writing about Depression in College Essay Uncovered </h1> <p>While examining twins, researchers have found there is a profoundly viable hereditary impact in despondency. The last basic explanation behind adolescent despondency is caused because of family conditions. It not just includes the brain, it likewise includes the body and musings. In spite of the fact that the awesome melancholy would be a genuine story concerning the divider road photography extraordinary despondency prompted the affordable point of view. </p> <p>These entries will open up the issue and license you to get a supportive indication of the point. Last, the detail of genuine discourse makes the scene pop. As it were, you wish to verify that you're introducing your actual self in the absolute best light. Regardless of whether it is a sonnet, an irregular stream of considerations, mockery, or some other sort of writing to have the option to feel progressively imaginative, it isn't generally the perfect thought. </p> <h2> Who Else Wants to Learn About Writing about Depression in College Essay? </h2> <p>All the school organizers referenced beforehand concur that in the event that your psychological health battle in secondary school unmistakably affected your presentation, at that point you have to make reference to it in the Additional Information part of the Common Application yet just in a verifiable technique. Before you pick whether you'll uncover your history of emotional well-being or handicap, y ou should consider the absolute capacity of a college application. In case you're concerned your issues are as yet not leveled out and that school may worsen them you might need to ponder taking a hole year and working with a local advisor to prepare for the huge change. Mental issues in the understudies have gotten very huge and ought to be taken consideration off. </p> <p>There are a ton of one of a kind medications for the individuals who are discouraged. Not very many commercials about the ailment is discovered there in the overall population. The two grown-ups and teenagers that are discouraged need proficient treatment. So in the event that somebody doesn't take care of business for a person, there are much more drugs to choose from. </p> <h2> Get the Scoop on Writing about Depression in College Essay Before You're Too Late </h2> <p>Adolescents should look for medications as it will positively enable them to mend. Adolescent despondency has numerous results. It isn't just brought about by ecological components. </p> <p>Depression has developed into one of the most boundless ailments, which can be clarified by methods for a blend of elements ordinary for the contemporary world's way of life. It influences youngsters from various perspectives. It is a genuine wellbeing issue that is brought about by a synthetic awkwardness in the cerebrum. Bipolar Depression, likewise called, Manic Depression, is as yet another sort of Depression. </p> <p>This extraordinary sort of article is among the most as often as possible utilized expositions in the scholastic world. In an assortment of ways, the exposition is the primary segment of the school application. Gotten from 1 morning in 1918, 2002 papers can gain prompt openness to. In spite of the way that a useful paper is only perhaps the most effortless sort of scholastic composition, it's as yet critical to peruse accommodating tips on the most ideal approach to compose it. </p> <p>Without a proposal, it's unimaginable that you present a profitable contention. The basic truth which you're not expounding on it upon your application doesn't demonstrate that universities needn't bother with the genuine'' you, or that you'll be not able to be fruitful. Bridget's exposition is very solid, however there keep on being a couple easily overlooked details that could be improved. In case you're making a decent attempt to create a pleasant application paper, look into. </p> <p>Turn to the blueprint each time you're losing the point. In the event that you are pondering buying a thing which you will in any case have next schedule year, consider pulling out the card yet you should be cautious. The extra data you find out about the school, the better the chance you'll pick one that satisfies your requirements. Americans were increasingly forceful since they seen that there were contracting chances to have a position. </p> <p>Think of what a sch ool wishes to comprehend about you as an individual, or what a college would pick up by having you transform into part of the grounds network. Schools need to comprehend what you're looking for, so they can make certain they're offering what you need to be certain school is a cheerful, effective encounter for you. Besides, the school would already be able to watch the rundown of camps and grants in another part of the application. All schools give classes and degrees, and many let you concentrate in another country. </p>
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The world we live in can be considered as being a complex system of values and traditions, of customs, and national identities. The differences that lie at the basis of each of the worlds civilizations and cultures is what gives our society its sense of individuality but at the same time can be the reason of unpardonable mistakes which can offend the others sense of nationality and of traditional values. From this perspective, it is important to always be aware of the cultural differences and at the same time, of the similarities that parts and keeps us together. We tend to have different perceptions of ideas, of notions and concepts, of beliefs, even of colors and rituals. It is precisely such rifts that give our world a sense of diversity and makes cultural interaction an exciting and at the same time risky affair. Despite the possible difficulties we may come across when we come in contact with a different culture, the experience can prove to be worthy of the struggle and rewardin g in terms of the personal experience one is likely to share with the others. The American culture can be viewed as being practically international due to the widespread of the American symbols, of the impact and influence the American way of life has on the world. It represents for most societies the comparison point for prosperity and well being. However, despite the fact that most of the times the economic aspect tends to dominate the discussions on the way in which the American culture is perceived, there are other symbols as well which in fact define the core nature of the American traditions, customs, and in the end culture. However, these cannot be seen in their broadest expression but through a thorough comparison with another culture. The Japanese cultural environment in this sense is one of the most eloquent examples one can use to underline both the real identity of the American culture, as well as the diversity of the cultural environment of our global civilization.It has often been said that the era we live in is that of the informational revoluti on, in many views seen as the force that drives forward the century of information. In this environment, those who present the idea of the atomization of the national cultures and their integration in a global culture argue that the consumerist approach of our lives today has determined the fading away of our traditions and morals our ancestors valued. However, a comparison between the American culture and the Japanese one may show a different point of view, one which tries to underline the differences that still exist and will continue to exist between the worlds major cultural spaces.First and foremost, the cultural perception on the world is important for establishing the way in which each country and cultural spaces see their place in the world. In this sense, it can be stated from the very beginning that the American people see themselves as being the promoters of democracy, of the individual values, of human rights and of the sense of being exceptional (Kissinger, 1995). Indeed, throughout the centuries this view was most of the times promoted through political means, especially if one takes into account the political work of US presidents Wilson or the political discourse of former President Reagan who engaged the US in a fight against the righteousness in the world represented at that time by the Soviet Union. Nonetheless, the presidential perspective on politics also points out the actual view of the American people on their place in the world and on the importance of their values to the world. In this sense, the fact that the United States was often labeled as being a country of immigrants, gave the American people as a whole the sense of being the ultimate defenders of the individual, of the human being, to whom the Bill of Rights and the Constitution of the United States have guaranteed the respect of their individual and indivisible nature as humans. From this point of view, it can be said that the American people and the culture it created are based on this belief of being the promoters of justice and human equality. Therefore, their actions in the world are the precise exemplification of this belief.By comparison, the Japanese perception of the world is strongly related to the way in which the Japanese perceive themselves. Due to their troubled history in their part of the world, their culture has developed somewhat isolated from the main stream of civilization and, up to the end of the Second World War their political tradition was based on the imperial structure. The importance the people gave to their status of empire even prevented the political leaders from Japan to sign the capitulation of Japan in the Second World War. This comes to point out the essential role the idea of empire played in the collective conscience of the people (Kissinger, 1995). Today, Japan is a modern, thriving democracy, yet it retained a long and esteemed imperial tradition (Japan 101, n.d. ). Therefore, in order to understand the Japanese culture, one must deeply take into account their consideration of the Japanese people as being unique and of noble descent.From the perspective these two cultures have on the world, and taking into account their totally different historical backgrounds, there are differences in their cultural perceptions that eventually lead to the conclusion on the diversity of nations around the world, and the importance knowing these differences has for establishing positive cultural contacts.Reducing the the American culture and the Japanese one to its mere individuals, it is rather interesting to see the differences. While the label of American can be attributed to a two generation Italian immigrant or a Puerto Rican, for the Japanese, to be a Japanese is to be born of Japanese parents, to look Japanese, to speak the Japanese language, and to act Japanese- the full set (Condon, 1983). Therefore, the national identity represents indeed an issue fo r the Japanese individual. Moreover, this attitude of the pureness of the race is visible even in their behavior as they are sometimes even confused by the fact that it is possible for ordinary US citizens to mistake them for Americans in an American city. Therefore, they have a sense of superiority which makes them immune to the influence of others.In this sense, one will be surprised by the different views an American and a Japanese person have on personal interaction. The American tourist or even the regular New Yorker finds it very easily to interact with people around him and it can be said that the personal space between people in America is much more reduced. On the other hand, the Japanese are rather reluctant to interact with foreigners in particular. It is not necessarily the matter of being a stranger in their country, but the fact that you are not Japanese.In terms of the space they live in, Americans and the Japanese may seem to share the same environmental space at a first glance. In this sense, to most short-term Western visitors of Japan, Japanese cities, and most especially Tokyo, seem profoundly Westernized or, more precisely, Americanized. Indeed, in many respects Japanese cities are as modern as their counterparts in the United States or anywhere else in the First World and carry most attributes of a highly developed contemporary urban culture. Japan is not only one of the most urbanized countries, but also one of the most advanced consumer societies, with cities offering the same high-quality products, facilities, and services as in New York, Chicago, London, or Paris (Fehrenbach, 2000, 45). However, despite the fact that their capital is an architectonic wonder, it is combined with ancient temples and worship sites. Therefore, from this point of view it can be said that the landscape of the country is a clear mirror of the Japanese people: a combination of new with old, of modernity with traditions.The family represents an essential part in the structure of the society. The traditional American family is based on promoting values inside the family, such as fairness, honesty, moral integrity (American Family Traditi ons, 2007). On the other hand, however, the Japanese family is based more on the issue of moral integrity and personal fairness. This is an important aspect that runs in the family education in Japan. They put such an important accent on the idea of honor, that they are willing, without any remorse, to put an end to their life if they feel they are not integrated in the society or if they feel they did not raise to the standards imposed by that society. Thus, in the feudal Japan for example, samurais killed themselves fueled by honor reasons. It was known as seppuku or hara-kiri, a method used to punish dishonor by ending their own life. It was thought by the samurai that staying alive represented a dishonor to their family after a humiliating loss in battle (Velastegui, n.d.). Therefore, honor in the Japanese society is very important. This is one of the reasons for which the relationships inside the family are considered to be more distant than in other societies, for instance the US. The pressures of the society are seen in the environment of the family where children are expected to be educated, and applied in their studies. Otherwise, they are considered to be a shame for the family.Related to the issue of honor and suicide is the aspect of death. In the American society one can easily see the Christina influence and the adherence to the European beliefs related to the elderly and their role and place in the society. On the one hand death is seen in the American society as a moment of grief and sorrow, where people part and never see each other, in Japanese culture, the concept of death with dignity focuses on enhancing the relationship with significant others (especially with family members) and is expected to continue even after death, unlike the au tonomous decision making in Western cultures. Deaths in such relationships are self-worthy, majestic and wished for (Nakagawa, 1995). Therefore, death is not seen as a tragic event, more as a step in a wider process of the existence of the human being.Related to the elderly, here too there is a sense of influence of the cultural backgrounds of the civilizations. In this sense, the European culture, the descendents of the American one, has a greater respect for the elders, because they consider old age as being the final step of the life. By contrast the Japanese think of old age as just a step in ones existence. Moreover, there is the issue of not being considered vulnerable. From this perspective, old age may be considered vulnerability and the Japanese will not accept any help as they see they might show any sign of suffering. Aside from issues that relate to cultural aspects, there are practical notions that keep to the idea of the physical contact between people. Firstly, the way people eat. Americans generally eat lunches or dinners in restaurants, while the Japanese tend to eat out in the evening in particular. While the Americans eat a variety of foods, from what is today consider being junk food or fast food, the Japanese eat rice and traditional Japanese meals in particular. However, there are habits concerning dinners in a Japanese family. Thus, It is customary in Japan for hosts to insist on their guests taking more. It is a Japanese custom to finish all the food on the dinner table. Japanese usually have beautiful manners only when foreigners are watching. (Asia Recipe.com,n.d.) Also, the habit of dining out also points out the relationship between males and females in the society. In this sense, Japanese diner-outs are almost exclusively male (Asia Recipe.com, n. d). This distinction is one of the reasons for which Japanese family had the tendency to break apart. However, at the moment there is the trend of increasing the shared responsibility in the family. Thus, both men and women work, both try to cater for the needs of the children. However, this situation is seen particularly in young couples, and less in traditional mature marriages.The colors are also essential to point out the identity of each of these two cultures. The American culture considers black as a sign of sorrow, and white as a sign of purity and is traditionally worn at weddings. Yellow usually stands for optimism, while red signifies passion and love. By comparison, in the Japanese culture, red and white are good luck colors (Japanese Traditional and Ceremonial Colors, 2001). They are used for festive occasions such as births and weddings. However, black is also the traditional color wore to funerals.Finally, there are certain elements which constitute the specificities of the cultural framework of a nation. In this sense, for instance, gestures have a particular meaning. For the Americans, thumbs up means that everything is all right; a wave of the hand suggests hello. For the Japanese, only the young generation tends to recognize them as being universally accepted. The sitting on the tetami is essential for the way in which a westerner behaves in Japan. A similar sign to waving is the Japanese beckon () a waving motion with the palm down and the hand flapping up and down at the wrist. Westerners may confuse this with a wave and not realize they are being beckoned. Although this gesture (temaneki) is used by both men and women and all age groups, it is considered rude to beckon a superior this way (Abe, n.d.). This view also indicates the fact that seniority is an essential issue in the Japanese society and work place. Thus, while in America we may find superiors who are younger than subalterns, in Japan, such things never occur. Although the criteria of performance are important, seniority is more important.Overall, it can be said that taking into account this parallel, the two cultures are by far one of the most different of all. However, precisely their difference shows the diversity of our world and the endless possibilities for discoveries. Bibliography: Abe, Namiko. Japanese gestures. N.d. 12 Feb 2008 http://japanese.about. com/library/weekly/aa060300.htm American Family Traditions. Family Traditions. 2007. 12 Feb. 2008 http://www.americanfamilytraditions. com/values.htm Asia Recipe.com. Dining in Japan. Eating Scenarios for Westerners. N.d. 12 Feb. 2008 http://asiarecipe.com/japwest.html Condon, John. With respect to the Japanese: a guide for Americans. Intercultural Press, Boston, 1983. Fehrenbach, Heide Transactions, Transgressions, Transformations: American Culture in Western Europe and Japan. Berghahn Books. New York, 2000. Japan. 101. Japan. An introduction. Japans Culture. N.d. 12 Feb. 2008 http://www.japan-101.com/culture/japan_intorduction.htm Japanese Traditional and Ceremonial Colors. Temarikai.com. 2001. 12 Feb 2008 http://www.temarikai.com/meaningoftraditionalcolors.htm Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon Schuster, 1995. Nakagawa Y. Death with dignity in the Japanese culture. Osaka International University of Women, Japan. 1995. 12 Feb 2008 http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9179962 Velastegui, Guillermo. Suicide among teenagers. N.d. 12 Feb. 2008. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:0RzrbR-hde4J:clip.lagcc.cuny.edu/E2DF06/Guillermo/Writtenproject.doc+seppuku+among+teenagershl=roct=clnkcd=1gl=ro
Question: Discuss about the Dvine Command Theory Claims System. Answer: Introduction: The Dvine Command Theory claims that God is the ultimate authority and his commands should be regarded as the ulterior source of ethical commands that should determine the course of human action (McLachlan, 2009). The divine commands should be followed regardless of the consequences, as Gods commands are the only sources of ethics, to be followed. Moral good is completely dependent on God and divine commands. The Kantian Duty Ethis theory, however, states that an action can be inherently right or it can be inherently wrong, regardless of the consequence it may have. Right course of actions should be pursued simply because they are the right things to do, and wrong course of action should be dismissed because they are wrong, and the wrong action must be avoided, even if the wrong action may not necessarily lead to bad consequence. If an action is right, one should do it, even if it may produce wrong or harmful consequences. Aristotles Virtue Ethics Theory states that an individual who is willing to lead a noble and ethical life, must ensure that he follows the ideal character traits as followed by any other virtuous person in his life. The character of a virtuous person develops through his habit, and thus his ethical nature is not a gifted quality, but rather an acquired skill. Prudence, justice, temperance and courage are the four important virtues that a person must imbibe, if he wishes to lead an ethical life. Socrates Teleological theory adopts a consequentialist approach, and states that while determining the moral value of an action, the moral intent with which an action is performed, does not deserve serious consideration, and rather the ultimate consequence of the action will determine its moral value (McLachlan, 2009). If the end of an action is good or desirable, the action should be performed, and should be regarded as ethically right, while in case the end of an action is not good, even if the action had a noble intent, it will fail to qualify as a moral action. The action has no moral value, but its end has. Again, Utilitarinaism states that the moral value of an action is dependent on its ability to produce results that can ensure utility for maximum number of people. Utility of an action can be defined as the sum of pleasure derived through an action minus the suffering of one or more than one person involved in the action. The moral value of any action is solely dependent on the effect produced on the mass of people, and its ability in generating maximum welfare amongst the members of the community involved. Enlightened self-interest theory of ethics is an important theory that states that anyone who wishes and works for furthering the interest of others, ends up serving their own interests as well. By doing good to others, an individual can easily assure a good life for himself. When an individual decides to enhance another persons quality of life, the quality of his own life will also enhance in the process. Again, Contrarianism is a theory of belief which asks people to take up actions contrary to popular beliefs and ideals (McLachlan, 2009). A contrarian is anyone who holds a position contrary to the consensus position. This theory helps in questioning the traditional values rather than conforming to them. Feminist Ethics is a belief which states that the traditional theorists have always undermined the womens perspectives about moral value of actions. The traditional ethics focuses primarily on male perspectives on ethics with little or no regard to female point of view. It is highl y important to revise, re-formulate as well as rethink the traditional ethics so that the moral experiences of women do not remain undervalued. Reference List: McLachlan, J. (2009).The Right Choice: Making Ethical Decisions on the Job. Toronto: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Advanced Accounting Assignment Week 7 1. Which of the following combinations correctly describes the relationship between foreign currency transactions, exchange rate changes, and foreign exchange gains and losses? Answer: c. Import purchase, Depreciates and Gain 3. On October 1, 2013, Mud Co. , a U. S. company, purchased parts from Terra, a Portuguese company, with payment due on December 1, 2013. If MudÃ¢â¬â¢s 2013 operating income included no foreign exchange gain or loss, the transaction could have Answer: b. Been denominated in U. S. dollars. 4. In PostÃ¢â¬â¢s 2014 consolidated income statement, how much should it report as a foreign exchange loss? Answer: c. $15,000. 5. In its 2014 income statement, what amount should Houghton include as a foreign exchange gain or loss on the note? Answer: d. $10,000 loss. 6. Did the foreign currencies increase or decrease in dollar value from the date of the transaction to the settlement date? Answer: d. Increase, Decrease 10. Which of the following correctly describes the manner in which Barnum Company will report the forward contract on its December 31, 2013, balance sheet? Answer: d. As a liability in the amount of $4,901. 50. 11. Assuming that MNC did not enter into a forward contract, how much foreign exchange gain or loss should it report on its 2013 income statement with regard to this transaction? Answer: c. $2,000 loss. 12. Assuming that MNC entered into a forward contract to sell 10 million South Korean won on December 1, 2013, as a fair value hedge of a foreign currency receivable, what is the net impact on its net income in 2013 resulting from a fluctuation in the value of the won? Answer: b. $58. 80 decrease in net income. Advanced Accounting free essay sample FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 280, Segment Reporting (FASB ASC 280), provides current guidance on segment reporting. A. ASC 280 follows a management approach in which segments are based on the way that management disaggregates the enterprise for making operating decisions; these are referred to as operating segments. B. Operating segments are components of an enterprise which meet three criteria. 1. Engage in business activities and earn revenues and incur expenses. 2. Operating results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision-maker to assess performance and make resource allocation decisions. Discrete financial information is available from the internal reporting system. C. Once operating segments have been identified, three quantitative threshold tests are then applied to identify segments of sufficient size to warrant separate disclosure. Any segment meeting even one of these tests is separately reportable. 1. Revenue testÃ¢â¬âsegment revenues, both external and intersegment, are 10 percent or more of the combined revenue, external and intersegment, of all reported operating segments. We will write a custom essay sample on Advanced Accounting or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 2. Profit or loss testÃ¢â¬âsegment profit or loss is 10 percent or more of the greater (in absolute terms) of the combined reported profit of all profitable segments or the combined reported loss of all segments incurring a loss. 3. Asset testÃ¢â¬âsegment assets are 10 percent or more of the combined assets of all operating segments. D. Several general restrictions on the presentation of operating segments exist. 1. Separately reported operating segments must generate at least 75 percent of total sales made by the company to outside parties. 2. Ten is suggested as the maximum number of operating segments that should be separately disclosed. If more than ten are reportable, the company should consider combining some operating segments. E. Information to be disclosed by operating segment. 1. General information about the operating segment including factors used to identify operating segments and the types of products and services from which each segment derives its revenues. 2. Segment profit or loss and the following components of profit or loss. a. Revenues from external customers. b. Revenues from transactions with other operating segments. c. Interest revenue and interest expense (reported separately). d. Depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense. e. Other significant noncash items included in segment profit or loss. f. Unusual items and extraordinary items. g. Income tax expense or benefit. 3. Total segment assets and the following related items. a. Investment in equity method affiliates. b. Expenditures for additions to long-lived assets. II. Enterprise-wide disclosures. A. Information about products and services. 1. Additional information must be provided if operating segments have not been determined based on differences in products and services, or if the enterprise has only one operating segment. In those situations, revenues derived from transactions with external customers must be disclosed by product or service. B. Information about geographic areas. 1. Revenues from external customers and long-lived assets must be reported for (a) the domestic country, (b) all foreign countries in which the enterprise has assets or derives revenues, and (c) each individual foreign country in which the enterprise has material revenues or material long-lived assets. 2. U. S. GAAP does not provide any specific guidance with regard to determining materiality of revenues or long-lived assets; this is left to managementÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment. C. Information about major customers. 1. The volume of sales to a single customer must be disclosed if it constitutes 10 percent or more of total sales to unaffiliated customers. 2. The identity of the major customer need not be disclosed. III. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) also provide guidance with respect to segment reporting. A. IFRS 8, Ã¢â¬Å"Operating Segments,Ã¢â¬ is based on U. S. GAAP. Major differences between IFRS 8 and U. S. GAAP are: 1. IFRS 8 requires disclosure of total assets and total liabilities by operating segment if these are regularly reported to the chief operating decision maker. U. S. GAAP requires disclosure of segment assets but does not require disclosure of segment liabilities. 2. IFRS 8 specifically includes intangibles in the scope of Ã¢â¬Å"non-current assetsÃ¢â¬ to be disclosed by geographic area. Authoritative accounting literature (FASB ASC) indicates that Ã¢â¬Å"long-lived assetsÃ¢â¬ to be disclosed by geographic area excludes intangibles. U. S. GAAP requires an entity with a matrix form of organization to determine operating segments based on products and services. IFRS 8 allows such an entity to determine operating segments based on either products and services or geographic areas. IV. To provide investors and creditors with more timely information than is provided by an annual report, the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires publicly traded companies to provide financial statements on an interim (quarterly) basis. A.Quarterly statements need not be audited. V. FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 270, Interim Reporting (FASB ASC 270) requires companies to treat interim periods as integral parts of an annual period rather than as discrete accounting periods in their own right. A. Generally, interim statements should be prepared following the same accounting principles and practices used in the annual statements. B. However, several items require special treatment for the interim statements to better reflect the expected annual amounts. Revenues are recognized for interim periods in the same way as they are on an annual basis. 2. Interim statements should not reflect the effect of a LIFO liquidation if the units of beginning inventory sold are expected to be replaced by year-end; inventory should not be written down to a lower market value if the market value is expected to recover above the inventorys cost by year-end; and planned variances under a standard cost system should not be reflected in interim statements if they are expected to be absorbed by year-end. 3. Costs incurred in one interim period but associated with activities or benefits of multiple interim periods (such as advertising and executive bonuses) should be allocated across interim periods on a reasonable basis through accruals and deferrals. 4. The materiality of an extraordinary item should be assessed by comparing its amount against the expected income for the full year. 5. Income tax related to ordinary income should be computed at an estimated annual effective tax rate; income tax related to an extraordinary item should be calculated at the margin. VI. FASB ASC 270 provides guidance for reporting changes in accounting principles made in interim periods. A. Unless impracticable to do so, an accounting change is applied retrospectively, that is, prior period financial statements are restated as if the new accounting principle had always been used. B. When an accounting change is made in other than the first interim period, information for the interim periods prior to the change should be reported by retrospectively applying the new accounting principle to these pre-change interim periods. C. If retrospective application of the new accounting principle to interim periods prior to the change of change is impracticable, the accounting change is not allowed to be made in an interim period but may be made only at the beginning of the next fiscal year. VII. Many companies provide summary financial statements and notes in their interim reports. A. U. S. GAAP imposes minimum disclosure requirements for interim reports. 1. Sales, income tax, extraordinary items, cumulative effect of accounting change, and net income. 2. Earnings per share. Seasonal revenues and expenses. 4. Significant changes in estimates or provisions for income taxes. 5. Disposal of a business segment and unusual items. 6. Contingent items. 7. Changes in accounting principles or estimates. 8. Significant changes in financial position. B. Disclosure of balance sheet and cash flow information is encouraged but not required. If not included in the interim report, significant changes in the following must be disclosed: 1. Cash and cash equivalents. 2. Net working capital. 3. Long-term liabilities. 4. Stockholders equity. VIII. Four items of information must also be disclosed by operating segment in interim financial statements: revenues from external customers, intersegment revenues, segment profit or loss, and, if there has been a material change since the annual report, total assets. IX. IAS 34, Ã¢â¬Å"Interim Financial Reporting,Ã¢â¬ provides guidance in IFRS with respect to interim financial statements. A. Unlike U. S. GAAP, IAS 34 requires each interim period to be treated as a discrete accounting period in terms of the amounts to be recognized. As a result, expenses that are incurred in one quarter are expensed in that quarter even though the expenditure benefits the entire year. And there is no accrual in earlier quarters for expenses expected to be incurred later in the year. Answer to Discussion Question: How Does a Company Determine Whether a Foreign Country is Material? In his well-publicized Ã¢â¬Å"The Numbers GameÃ¢â¬ speech delivered in September 1998, former SEC chairman Arthur Levitt cited Ã¢â¬Å"materialityÃ¢â¬ as one of five gimmicks used by companies to manage earnings. Although his remarks were not specifically directed toward the issue of geographic segment reporting, the intent was to warn corporate America that materiality should not be used as an excuse for inappropriate accounting. To make the point even more salient, ASC 250-10-S99 (SAB Topic 1. M, Assessing Materiality, originally issued by the SEC as Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) 99, Ã¢â¬Å"MaterialityÃ¢â¬ ), warns financial statement preparers that reliance on a simple numerical rule of thumb, such as 5% of net income, is not sufficient. ASC 250-10-S99 reminds financial statement preparers that in its Concepts Statement 2, the FASB stated the essence of the concept of materiality as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"The omission or misstatement of an item in a financial report is material if, in the light of surrounding circumstances, the magnitude of the item is such that it is probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying upon the report would have been changed or influenced by theÃ inclusion or correction of the item. Ã¢â¬ Further, ASC 250-10-S99 reminds companies that both quantitative and qualitative factors should be considered in determining materiality. With respect to segment reporting, ASC 250-10-S99 states: Ã¢â¬Å"The materiality of a misstatement may turn on where it appears in the financial statements. For example, a misstatement may involve a segment of the registrants operations. In that instance, in assessing materiality of a misstatement to the financial statements taken as a whole, registrants and their auditors should consider not only the size of the misstatement but also the significance of the segment information to the financial statements taken as a whole. Ã¢â¬Å"A misstatement of the revenue and operating profit of a relatively small segment that is represented by management to be important to the future profitability of the entity is more likely to be material to investors than a misstatement in a segment that management has not identified as especially important. In assessing the materiality of misstatements in segment information as with materiality generally situations may arise in practice where the auditor will conclude that a matter relating to segment information is qualitatively material even though, in his or her judgment, it is quantitatively immaterial to the financial statements taken as a whole. Thus, in addition to quantitative factors, such as the relative percentage of total revenues generated in an individual foreign country, companies should consider qualitative factors as well. Qualitative factors that might be relevant in assessing the materiality of a specific foreign country include: the growth prospects in that country and the level of risk associated with doing business in that country. There are competing arguments for the FASB establishing a significance test for determining material foreign countries. On one hand, such a quantitative materiality test flies in the face of the warning provided in ASC 250-10-S99. For example, a 10% of total revenue or long-lived asset test might give companies an excuse to avoid reporting individual countriesÃ that would be material for qualitative reasons. Assume that from one year to the next a company increases its revenues in China from 2% of total revenues to 6% of total revenues. Although 6% of total revenues would not meet a 10% test, the relatively large increase in total revenues generated in China could be material in that it could affect an investorÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future prospe cts. This company might be reluctant to disclose information about its revenues in China because of potential competitive harm. On the other hand, the FASB could establish a materiality threshold low enough, for example, 5% of total revenues, that would be likely to ensure that Ã¢â¬Å"materialÃ¢â¬ countries are disclosed regardless of whether they are material for quantitative or qualitative reasons. A bright-line materiality threshold would ensure a minimum level of disclosure and would enhance the comparability of financial disclosures provided across companies. Answers to Questions 1. Consolidation presents the account balances of a business combination without regard for the individual component companies that comprise the organization. Thus, no distinction can be drawn as to the financial position or operations of the separate enterprises that form the corporate structure. Without a method by which to identify the various individual operations, financial analysis cannot be well refined. 2. The word disaggregated refers to a whole that has been broken apart. Thus, disaggregated financial information is the data of a reporting unit that has been broken down into components so that the separate parts can be identified and studied. 3. According to the FASB, the objective of segment reporting is to provide information to help users of financial statements: a.Ã better understand the enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, b. better assess its prospects for future net cash flows, and c. make more informed judgments about the enterprise as a whole. 4. Defining segments on the basis of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational structure removes much of the flexibility and subjectivity associated with defining industry segments under pri or standards. In addition, the incremental cost of providing segment information externally should be minimal because that information is already generated for internal use. Analysts should benefit from this approach because it reflects the risks and opportunities considered important by management and allows the analyst to see the company the way it is viewed by management. This should enhance the analystÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to predict management actions that can significantly affect future cash flows. 5. An operating segment is defined as a component of an enterprise: a. that engages in business activities from which it earns revenues and incurs expenses, b. whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker to assess performance and make resource allocation decisions, and c.Ã for which discrete financial information is available. 6. Two criteria must be considered in this situation to determine an enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s operating segment. If more than one set of organizational units exists, but there is only one set for which segment managers are held responsible, that set constitutes the operating segments. If segment ma nagers exist for two or more overlapping sets of organizational units, the organizational units based on products and services are defined as the operating segments. 7. The Revenue Test. An operating segment is separately reportable if its total revenues amount to 10 percent or more of the combined total revenues of all operating segments. The Profit or Loss Test. An operating segment is separately reportable if its profit or loss is 10 percent or more of the greater (in absolute terms) of the combined profits of all profitable segments or the combined losses of all segments reporting a loss. The Asset Test. An operating segment is separately reportable if its assets comprise 10 percent or more of combined assets of all operating segments. For reportable operating segments, the following information must be disclosed: a. Revenues from sales to unaffiliated customers. b. Revenues from intercompany transfers. c. Profit or loss. d. Interest revenue. e. Interest expense. f. Depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense. g. Other significant noncash items included in profit or loss. h. Unusual items included in profit or loss. i. Income tax expense or benefit. j. Total assets. k. Equity method investments. l. Expenditures for long-lived assets. m. Description of the types of products or services from which the segment derives its revenues. 9. If operating segments are not based upon products or services, or a company has only one operating segment, then revenues from sales to unaffiliated customers must be disclosed for each of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services. 10. Information must be provided for the domestic country, for all foreign countries in which the company generates revenue or holds assets, and for each foreign country in which the company generates a material amount of revenues or has a material amount of assets. Two items of information must be reported for the domestic country, for all foreign countries in total, and for each foreign country in which the company has material operations: (1) revenues from external customers, and (2) long-lived assets. 12. The minimum number of countries to be reported separately is one: the domestic country. If no single foreign country is material, then all foreign countries would be combined and two lines of information would be reported; one for the United States and one for all foreign countries. U. S.Ã GAAP does not provide any guidelines related to the maximum number of countries to be reported. 13. The existence of a major customer and the related amount of revenues must be disclosed when sales to a single customer are 10 percent or more of consolidated sales. 14. U. S. GAAP requires disclosure of a measure of segment assets, but does not require disclosure of a measure of segment liabilities. IFRS 8 requires disclosure of total assets and total lia bilities by segment if such a measure is regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker 15. U. S.Ã publicly traded companies are required to prepare quarterly financial reports to provide investors and creditors with relevant information on a more timely basis than is provided by an annual report. 16. Companies are required to follow an integral approach in which each interim period is considered to be an integral part of an annual accounting period, rather than a discrete accounting period in its own right. For several items, the integral approach requires deviation from the general rule that the same accounting principles used in preparing annual statements should also be used in preparing interim statements. 17. Cost-of-goods-sold should be adjusted in the interim period to reflect the cost at which the liquidated inventory is expected to be replaced, thus avoiding the effect of the LIFO liquidation on interim period income. 18. Income tax expense related to interim period income is determined by estimating the effective tax rate for the entire year. That rate is then applied to the cumulative pre-tax income earned to date to determine the cumulative income tax to be recognized to date. The amount of income tax recognized in the current interim period is the difference between the cumulative income tax to be recognized to date and the income tax recognized in prior interim periods. 19. When an accounting change occurs in other than the first interim period, information for the pre-change interim periods should be reported based on retrospective application of the new accounting principle. If retrospective application of the new accounting principle to pre-change interim periods is not practicable, the accounting change may be made only at the beginning of the next fiscal year. The following minimum information must be disclosed in an interim report: a. Sales, income tax, extraordinary items, cumulative effect of accounting change, and net income. b. Earnings per share. c. Seasonal revenues and expenses. d. Significant changes in estimates or provisions for income taxes. e. Disposal of a business segment and unusual items. f. Contingent items. g. Changes in accounting principles or estimates. h. Significant changes in the following items of financial position: 1. Cash and cash equivalents. 2. Net working capital. 3. Long-term liabilities. 4. Stockholders equity.